Twemproxy – Twitter 开源的 Redis proxy

在去年的QCon London2012 大会上,Twitter 发表了题为 《Timelines @ Twitter》的演讲,里面提到以Redis作为其timeline的主要存储,目前目测全球范围内,Twitter可能是Redis的最大用户了(或者是新浪微博?)。

而今天我们要说的这个Twemproxy,是 Twitter 开源出来的 Redis 和 Memcached 代理。

功能介绍

我们知道,无论是 Memcached 还是当前的 Redis,其本身都不具备分布式集群特性,当我们有大量 Redis 或 Memcached 的时候,通常只能通过客户端的一些数据分配算法(比如一致性哈希),来实现集群存储的特性。

Twemproxy 通过引入一个代理层,可以将其后端的多台 Redis 或 Memcached 实例进行统一管理与分配,使应用程序只需要在 Twemproxy 上进行操作,而不用关心后面具体有多少个真实的 Redis 或 Memcached 存储。

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Redis 的 Cluster 方案还没有正式推出之前,通过 Proxy 的方式来实现存储集群可能是最好的选择了。更何况 Twemproxy 是通过 Twitter 自身得到了充分检验的产品。

性能

根据 Redis 作者的测试结果,在大多数情况下,Twemproxy 的性能相当不错,直接操作 Redis 相比,最多只有20%的性能损失。这对于它带来的好处来说真的是微不足道了。唯一可能还有待改进的是其 MGET 操作的效率,其性能只有直接操作

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安装与配置

Twemproxy 的安装有点小麻烦,主要命令如下:

apt-get install automake apt-get install libtool git clone git://github.com/twitter/twemproxy.git cd twemproxy autoreconf -fvi ./configure --enable-debug=log make src/nutcracker -h

通过上面的命令就算安装好了,然后是具体的配置,下面是一个典型的配置

redis1: listen: 0.0.0.0:9999 #使用哪个端口启动Twemproxy redis: true #是否是Redis的proxy hash: fnv1a_64 #指定具体的hash函数 distribution: ketama #具体的hash算法 auto_eject_hosts: true #是否在结点无法响应的时候临时摘除结点 timeout: 400 #超时时间(毫秒) server_retry_timeout: 2000 #重试的时间(毫秒) server_failure_limit: 1 #结点故障多少次就算摘除掉 servers: #下面表示所有的Redis节点(IP:端口号:权重) - 127.0.0.1:6379:1 - 127.0.0.1:6380:1 - 127.0.0.1:6381:1 - 127.0.0.1:6382:1 redis2: listen:


 0.0.0.0:10000 redis: true hash: fnv1a_64 distribution: ketama auto_eject_hosts: false timeout: 400 servers: - 127.0.0.1:6379:1 - 127.0.0.1:6380:1 -
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你可以同时开启多个 Twemproxy 实例,他们都可以进行读写,这样你的应用程序就可以完全避免所谓的单点故障。

问题与不足

Twemproxy 由于其自身原理限制,有一些不足之处,如:

  • 不支持针对多个值的操作,比如取sets的子交并补等(MGET 和 DEL 除外)
  • 不支持Redis的事务操作
  • 出错提示还不够完善

更多

更多关于Twemproxy的介绍可以看这里:http://antirez.com/news/44

Twemproxy的项目地址:https://github.com/twitter/twemproxy

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